The vimtutor is also an easy way to learn by doing. You can type: 'y' to substitute this match 'n' to skip this match to skip this match 'a' to substitute this and all remaining matches {not in Vi} 'q' to quit substituting {not in Vi} CTRL-E to scroll the screen up {not in Vi} CTRL-Y to scroll the screen down {not in Vi}. If you have done that once, you can do it again with "@@". Use Ctrl-W w to jump to the window with the text you were working on. For example, the pattern "c.m" matches a string whose first character is a "c", whose second character is anything, and whose the third character is "m". That's because the ` command is a jump itself, and the position from before this jump is remembered. It's like doing "d$" to delete the text and then "a" to start Insert mode and append new text. PC: MS-DOS and MS-Windows 3. Fortunately Ctrl-F is Forward and Ctrl-B is Backward, that's easy to remember. If you use the "e" command to move to the end of a word, vim guesses that you do want to include that last character: Whether the character under the cursor is included depends on the command you used to move to that character. If you then press ":" to start a colon command, you will see this: Now you can type the command and it will be applied to the range of lines that was visually selected. At least the ones for Normal mode. You will see right away that the whole line is highlighted, without moving around. A common issue is that after moving down many lines with "j" your cursor is at the bottom of the screen. Use "y$" to yank to the end of the line. You get the following prompt: At this point, you must enter one of the following answers: The "from" part of the substitute command is actually a pattern. If you really want to forbid making changes in a file, do this: Now every attempt to change the text will fail. The 'wrapscan' option is on by default, thus searching wraps around the end of the file. You can now type in the name of the filter program, in this case sort. The "c" letter was already used for the change operator, and "y" was still available. The text of the file is put below the cursor line. For example, use "mt" to mark the top of an area and "mb" to mark the bottom. A quick way to go to the start of a file use "gg". Similarly "\<" only matches at the begin of a word. Normally you have to type exactly what you want to find. At all times, to get back to Normal mode (no matter what mode you are in), press the key. Or more specifically, it deletes a word and then puts you in Insert mode. The "C" command deletes text from the left edge of the block to the end of line. In this case: At this point, you have a number of alternatives. When you delete text, you can also specify a register. Press Enter. Move the cursor to the right window, to the line where "changed" was inserted. Others can be downloaded from the official vim website, https://vim.sourceforge.io/. Alternatives to vim are the command-line editor's nano and joe. G move to the end of the file. {motion}{program}" takes a block of text and filters it through an external program. The "5G" command tells vim to go to line 5, so it now knows that it is to filter lines 1 (the current line) through 5. To change a whole sentence use "cis". This can be used to edit a file name that starts with a '. Take these two lines: Move the cursor to the first line and press "J": The "u" command undoes the last edit. For example, "cw" changes a word. When you know how many lines you want to change, you can type the number and then ":". Suppose you have some text near the start of the file you need to look at, while working on some text near the end of the file. It will include the text object in the Visual selection. Vim is a text editor that is upwards compatible to Vi. The "yy" command yanks a whole line, just like "dd" deletes a whole line. The result is. Do this with the "gU" operator. If you want both, use "bold,underline". If there are many matches, type a few more characters before pressing to complete the rest. It can be downloaded on Vim official site. The best way to learn these commands is by using them. There is a special way to start vim, which shows the differences between two files. It should show something like "(2 of 3)". For example, "1$" moves you to the end of the first line (the one you're on), "2$" to the end of the next line, and so on. This is extremely useful if you are working on a program and want to view or edit all the files that contain a specific variable. Line 5 is included. When you learn more complicated patterns later, you can use them here. Now press "d" and the middle column is gone. You type "f" to search backward, for example, only to realize that you really meant "F". If this is your layout: Then using Ctrl-W K in the middle window (three.c) will result in: The other three similar commands (you can probably guess these now): When you have several windows open and you want to quit vim, you can close each window separately. character is used and the name of an external command. Write this file with the 'backup' option set, so that the backup file "main.c~" will contain the previous version of the file. What if you want to read the file above the first line? Simply press the i key when in command mode to enter the insert mode. Then it goes one line down and filters the lines until the next empty line. but you can not insert or add anything to that file. The "Cut" menu item deletes the text before it's put on the clipboard. You can use a count with "p" and "P". ", there are several differences. But what if you want to do something more complex than a single change? Now do the same thing in vim. Like most vim commands, you can use a numeric prefix to move past multiple words. The Ctrl-O command jumps to older positions ("O" stands for "older"). Take the first step in learning Vim with the basic saving commands. You now have two lines of text in your vim window: When first learning vim, it is common to get confused by typing the wrong command, or typing it in the wrong mode. Text indentation is vital when it comes to code readability. Finally, there is a command that quits vim and throws away all changes: Be careful, there is no way to undo this command! Vim is installed by default on most Unix based operating systems, including Mac OS and most GNU/Linux distros. Vim was made available in 1991 and is a free, open source software. How short can a command get? Now that it sorts to another place, it must have a backslash. Vim (Vi IMproved) is an open-source text editor for Unix or Linux systems. The "$" character is used for this. Without a range it writes the whole file. When you deleted a whole line with "dd", "P" will put it back above the cursor. If at any time you decide you don't want to do anything with the highlighted text, just press and Visual mode will stop without doing anything. Generally, every time you do a command that can move the cursor further than within the same line, this is called a jump. In the GUI use the Edit/Color Scheme menu. Let's use the example that we got so familiar with now. For instance, if you move the cursor to the first line and type "dd", our example will look like: In vim you can join two lines together, which means that the line break between them is deleted. To do so, press the Esc key of your keyboard. The result is: The "O" command (uppercase) is similar, but opens a line above the cursor instead of below it. Watch out for this difference. In Visual mode the selected text is replaced with the pasted text. If you are a UNIX user, you can use a combination of vim and the grep command to edit all the files that contain a given word. Suppose you have recorded a few commands in register n. When you execute this with "@n" you notice you did something wrong. Use this command to jump forward to the next change: You can move text from one window to the other. Once you're in PowerShell, here's how to run Vim itself. You can prepend a count: "3*" searches for the third occurrence of the word under the cursor. The following command opens a second window and starts editing the given file: If you were editing one.c, then the result looks like this: To open a window on a new, empty file, use this: You can repeat the ":split" and ":new" commands to create as many windows as you like. The string will be inserted in each line in the block. Can also be done with ". To increase the size of a window: Ctrl-W +. To scroll one line at a time use Ctrl-E (scroll up) and Ctrl-Y (scroll down). Now type: If the block spans short lines that do not extend into the block, the text is not inserted in that line. Use this to check if the right match will be found. If you make changes to a file and forgot that it was read-only, you can still write it. That should work in most situations to get color in your files. vim checks the 'shell' option and sets related options automatically, depending on whether it sees "csh" somewhere in 'shell'. Thus these two commands do the same thing: This is one of those vim features that, by itself, is a reason to switch from Vi to vim. Regular expressions are an extremely powerful and compact way to specify a search pattern. This includes the search commands "/" and "n" (it doesn't matter how far away the match is). Keep doing this until you are at the end of the text you want to format. Type @:to repeat the last command. The c (confirm) flag tells ":substitute" to ask you for confirmation before it performs each substitution. If your keyboard has an key it will do the same thing. vim guesses the background color that you are using. You can also move the cursor by using the arrow keys. Another Ctrl-O takes you back to where you started. It is a 30 minute tutorial that teaches the most basic vim functionality hands-on. You know that only chapter boundaries have the word "Chapter" in the first column. You cannot see it, but there is a space before a tab in this command. In this mode, each character you type replaces the one under the cursor. If any of the other windows has changes, you will get an error message and that window won't be closed. This must come just before the yank command. Thus you can switch between tab pages by clicking on the label in the top line. This formats the current line and the one below it. There are a few options that change how searching works. Just try it out to see how it works. For example: "H" stands for Home, "M" stands for Middle and "L" stands for Last. quote to be used around the command and redirection, use forward slashes in the command (only for MS-Windows and alikes), string used to write the command output into a file. The cursor will automatically be positioned in a window with changes. If specified, this will be the height of the new window. When there are many matches, you would like to see an overview. This way you can operate on any text you can move over. Therefore, your full command is as follows: The result is that the sort program is run on the first 5 lines. {not available when vim was compiled without the |+eval| feature}. Suppose you have a directory that contains these files: To edit the last one, you use the command: It's easy to type this wrong. You could map "\p" to add parentheses around a word, and "\c" to add curly braces, for example: You need to type the \ and the p quickly after another, so that vim knows they belong together. There are three steps: (1) The "q{register}" command starts recording keystrokes into the register named {register}. If you type "ZZ", your changes are committed and there's no turning back. If you want syntax highlighting only when the terminal supports colors, you can put this in your vimrc file: If you want syntax highlighting only in the GUI version, put the ":syntax enable" command in your gvimrc file. That must be the one you are looking for, thus vim completes the file name for you. You get a message like this: This shows the name of the file you are editing, the line number where the cursor is, the total number of lines, the percentage of the way through the file and the column of the cursor. Can also be done with the ", Runs GUI vim in "easy mode". While you do this, the text is highlighted. There are two modes in vim. A single number can be used to address one specific line: Some commands work on the whole file when you do not specify a range. It keeps the existing indent (leading white space) though. Then you need to switch it on again if you want to use it for the next search command. The vim distribution comes with a set of plugins for different filetypes that you can start using with this command: If you are missing a plugin for a filetype you are using, or you found a better one, you can add it. If you know what you are doing and want to overwrite the file, append ! This functions as a safety against losing your original file when writing fails in some way (disk full is the most common cause). This also works on a range of lines. Some operator-motion commands are used so often that they have been given a single letter command: The commands "3dw" and "d3w" delete three words. 1. The 'equalalways' option, when set, makes vim equalize the windows sizes when a window is closed or opened. These characters are not really there. Pressing Ctrl-R (redo) reverses the preceding command. A much quicker way is: Which will result in the same command. Ctrl-^ jumps to the alternate file, Ctrl-W Ctrl-^ splits the window and edits the alternate file. That's where command recording comes in, better known as a macro. If this file already exists you will get an error message. The ":write" command works like that. Change case of the character under the cursor, and move the cursor to the next character. On Unix and Linux, if vim has been properly installed, you can start it from the command line by running the command: On Microsoft Windows you can find it in the Programs/vim menu, or you can run vimtutor.bat in the directory where vim was installed. Vim is a modal text editor, which means that it has a mode for writing text, a mode for running commands, etc. When you found the color scheme that you like, add the ":colorscheme" command to your vimrc file. In fact, the "d" command may be followed by any motion command, and it deletes from the current location to the place where the cursor winds up. Since many people are used to it now, the inconsistency has remained in vim. Visual mode continues, thus you can do this several times. The 'splitright' option can be set to make a vertically split window appear right of the current window. Resets the ', No swap file will be used. They just fill up main.c, so that it displays the same number of lines as the other window. Thus "4 Ctrl-W +" make the window four lines higher. This command is limited by the amount of text that is there; so if there is less than a shift amount of whitespace available, it removes what it can. "1G" will do the same. vim has a built-in command that you can use to search a set of files for a given string. With Visual mode, select the text you want to count words in. The selected text is now copied to the clipboard. The output of the program replaces these lines. First of all, "." (3) Tell vim to always use your color scheme. To make vim open a window for each file, start it with the "-o" argument: The "-O" argument is used to get vertically split windows. While working in Vim, copying, … You now have a block selection that spans four lines. If you are editing source files, you might want to keep the file before you make any changes. To go to the next matching line (no matter in what file it is), use the ":cnext" command. To delete a character, move the cursor over it and type "x". Launches vim, placing you in normal mode with a new document. Making the same selection by moving the cursor to the end of the longest line with other movement commands will not have the same result. In this example, the trigger is a single key; it can be any string. Now type this command: The change will be removed by putting the text of the current window in the other window. Most often, vim is started to edit a single file using the following command. Now use "cis": The cursor is in between the blanks in the first line. A quicker way is using this command: This stands for "quit all". For example, this command only substitutes "the" when it appears at the start of a line: If you are substituting with a "from" or "to" part that includes a slash, you need to put a backslash before it. Thus vim cycles through the list of matches. Finally type the operator command. Suppose the cursor is somewhere in the first of these two lines: If you now use the "o" command and type new text: Then type to return to normal mode. You will notice that K is again used for moving upwards. Edit another file, move around and place the text where you want it: Again, the register specification "f comes before the "p" command. If the cursor is on a "(" it moves to the matching ")". Recovery after a crash will be impossible. Obviously, this only works when you have a working mouse. Just like "d$" deletes until the end of the line, "c$" changes until the end of the line. 2. j moves the cursor down one line. I –> is normal command I that is, jump to the first character in line and execute insert # –> insert actual character You get it, for each range you select, for each of the line normal mode command is executed. Take a look at how this works. The sort command sorts a file. To open or create a file using Vim, run the following command, then press i to insert text into it (insert mode): $ vim file.txt OR $ vi file.txt One is the command mode and another is the insert mode. Move the cursor to the left window, on the line that was deleted in the other window. This is a generic mechanism, all ":" commands can be abbreviated. "dg" would have been better, but that already has a different meaning ("dgg" deletes from the cursor until the first line). Then you can enter the text. Thus "daw" is "Delete A Word". You can check which ones are readable and look nice. 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